With a population of 50 million, 40 percent of Kenyans rely on unimproved water sources, such as ponds, shallow wells and rivers, while 70 percent of Kenyans lack access to basic sanitation solutions. These challenges are especially evident in rural areas and urban slums where people are often unable to connect to piped water infrastructure. In rural Kenya, the average total coping costs for an unreliable or distant water supply are approximately $38 per month.
In comparison, the average water bill of a typical household in Nairobi that is connected to a piped system is only $4.46 per month. This comparison highlights the economic burdens that often fall more heavily on unconnected rural population than on households with piped connections. However, there are many areas where piped water connections do not produce a reliable, constant flow of water. Thus, solutions like borehole wells and rainwater harvesting tanks are also needed in urban and peri-urban areas.